Summary of Lectures & Posters

No.1 Exploitation of Environmentally Friendly Catalytic Processesfor Organic Synthesis
Shun-Ichi Murahashi (Osaka University)
Summary The development of catalytic reactions that use transition-metal complex catalysts under neutral and mild conditions is particularly important; society needs forward-looking technology, which is faced on environmental acceptability. The criteria include atom efficiency, formation of little inorganic waste, and new selective synthesis of desired products. Two approaches, i) catalytic biomimetic oxidation reactions, ii) redox Lewis acid and base catalysts as catalytic low-salt alternatives to conventional Lewis acids and bases will be presented.
No.2 Simple Chemistry as a Forerunner of GSC
Tadashi Hattori (Nagoya University)
Summary Simple Chemistry Program started in 1995 in order to develop new chemical processes with decreasing number of process units and without using co-reactants. Closer co-operations between industry and academic institution and between chemistry and engineering are emphasized in the program. Recent results obtained in alkane oxidation project in the program were briefly introduced by taking a few examples.
No.3 Chemical Recycling
Takeshi Endo (Yamagata University)
Summary The polymer recycling in Japan adopts material recycling and energy recovery. However, endeavors for chemical recycling, which is a non-cascade-type process met the concept of sustainable chemistry, are showing us some innovative technologies and materials such as applications of supercritical fluids, biocompatible and recyclable polymers made from renewable resources, and a reversible crosslinking-decrosslinking system of network polymers, etc. These challenges can demonstrate as new concepts exploring new fields of polymer chemical recycling.
No.4 Frontiers of Green Chemical Process
Toshiyasu Sakakura (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, MITI)
Summary Frontiers of research and development concerning Green Chemmistry are reviewed. Typical research categories are 1) substitutes for organic solvents (carbon dioxide, water, ionic liquids, etc.), 2) solid acids and solid bases, 3) renewable resources, 4) halogen-free processes, 5) biphase reactions, 6) partial oxidation, 7) measure of greeness, 8) biocatalysts, and so on. Some researches conducted at NIMC are also summarized.
No.5 R&D Activities of Industries forerunning GSC in Japan
Yasushi Yamamoto (Japan Chemical Innovation Institute)
Summary R&D activities of industries forerunning GSC in Japan were surveyed focusing the R&D promotion backed up by MITI, the research support sponsored by private foundations and R&D conducted individually by companies and awarded by academia. Relationship between the research mind and the promotion of GSC was briefly discussed.

Poster Sessions

No.1 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as a Greener Medium for Carbonylation of Organic Halides
Takao Ikariya, Yoshihito Kayaki, Yasuhisa Kishimoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology &CREST)
Summary The carbonylation of aryl halides catalyzed by CO2 soluble Pd proceeds rapidly in scCO2, in which the rate of the reaction is higher than those attained in solution phase reactions. .scCO2 can be also used as a suitable reaction medium for a free-radical carbonylation of alkyl halides and olefins, giving carbonyl compounds in excellent yields in scCO2. These reactions are characterized by higher efficiency than in conventional liquid solvents and tunability of product distribution with pressure. This is a consequence of the unique properties of scCO2 such as high miscibility of CO and controllable cage strength.
No.2 Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides and Sulfones with 30% Hydrogen Peroxide Under Organic Solvent- and Halogen-Free Conditions
Kazuhiko Sato (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research)
Ryoji Noyori* (Nagoya University)
Summary Aromatic and aliphatic sulfides are oxidized to sulfoxides or sulfones in high yield with 30% hydrogen peroxide under organic solvent- and halogen-free conditions. Dialkyl and alkyl aryl sulfides are cleanly oxidized to sulfoxides using aqueous hydrogen peroxide without catalysts. The best catalyst for the sulfone synthesis consists of sodium tungstate, phenylphosphonic acid, and methyltrioctylammonium hydrogensulfate. Co-existing primary or secondary alcohol or olefinic moieties are unaffected under such conditions.
No.3 Organic Reactions in Water Using Surfactant-Type Catalysts
Kei Manabe,Yuichiro Mori, Kentaro Kakumoto, and Shu_ Kobayashi (The University of Tokyo)
Summary Organic reactions in water have attracted much attention from a viewpoint of recent environmental consciousness. Lewis acid catalysis has now become feasible in water by using combinations of water-stable Lewis acidic cations and anionic surfactants. These new catalysts were found to form stable colloidal dispersions and catalyze various reactions in water. Moreover, Bronsted acid- and palladium-catalyzed reactions in water have also been performed with the aid of surfactants.
No.4 Efficient Oxidation of Alcohols Using a Hydroxyapatite-Bound Ru Complex Catalyst in the Presence of Molecular Oxygen
K. Yamaguchi, K. Mori, T. Mizugaki, K Ebitani, and K. Kaneda*(osaka University)
Summary The hydroxyapatite-bound Ru complex catalyst (RuHAP) was prepared by the treatment of calcium hydroxyapatite with an aqueous RuC13 Solution. An equimolar substitution of Ru3+ for Ca2+ occurred on the surface of the parent calcium hydroxyapatite which afforded a monomeric Ru cation surrounded by one chlorine and four oxygen atoms. The present preparation method using the hydroxyapatite support can allow a strong protocol to create a monomeric metal species on the solid surface as a hybrid heterogeneous catalyst. This RuHAP can act as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for aerobic oxidation of various alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild reaction conditions. The spent RuHAP was recyclable without an appreciable loss of the catalytic activity and selectivity for the oxidation.
No.5 Beckmann Rearrangement Catalyzed by Large-pore Zeolite and Mesoporous Molecular Sieve Catalysts
T. Tatsumi, C. Ngamcharussrivichai (Yokohama National University)
Summary A series of BEA zeolites and mesoporous molecular sieves with various Si/Al ratios has been applied to the liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement. The effects of the structure, the Al incorporation method and Al amount on the catalytic performance have been investigated. Benzonitrile was found to be a good solvent, increasing conversion and improving the selectivity for e-caprolactam. This solvent effect was remarkable for the mesoporous molecular sieves. Al incorporation was beneficial and Al isopropoxide was found to be a better Al source than Al chloride.
No.6 Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions in Ionic Liquids
Tomoya Kitazume, Zaiju Jiang, Kana Kasai (Graduate School of Bioengineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Summary The utilities of ionic liquids as a safe recyclable reaction medium for the carbon-carbon bond forming reactions such as the Reformatsky reaction, the synthetic reactions of alkynyl zinc reagents to produce propargylic alcohols and proline-promoted aldol reactions to produce alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and/or dienes, are described.
No.7 Green Catalysts for Diels-Alder Reactions
ONAKA Makoto (University of Tokyo)
Summary Green catalysts for Diels-Alder Reactions were developed by making use of sol-gel reactions of Si(OR)4 with Al(OR')3.
No.8 Novel Solid Acids for Clean Chemical Processes
Toshio Okuhara (Gradutate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University)
Summary To replace conventional processes by excess liquid acids with "Clean Chemical Processes" by solid acids, development of novel solid acids are required. A hydrophobic solid superacids, Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (Cs2.5), exhibited "water-tolerant catalysis"; this was highly active for hydrolysis of ester and oligosugars, and hydration of olefins in excess water. In addition, this was effective for solid-solid catalysis in Beckman rearrangement.
No.9 Environmental Benign Process: Selective Synthesis of Ethylenediamine from Ethanolamine over Modified H-Mordenite Catalyst
Kohichi Segawa (Sophia University , Department of Chemistry)
Summary The amination reactions of ethanolamoine over acidic types of zeolite catalysts were investigated, such a process is much more environmentally benign than the present industrial processes. Among the zeolites tested in this study, protonic form of dealuminated mordenite which was prepared by hydrochloric acid solution (H-HCl-MOR) showed much higher catalytic activity and selectivity for the selective synthesis of ethylenediamine from ethanolamine with ammonia.
No.10 Application of Azo Polymerization Initiators to Green Chemistry
Kuniaki Okamoto, Atsunori Sano, Kazuo Shiraki,Shigeru Kobayashi (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.),
Haruma Kawaguchi (Keio University),
Yasuyuki Kita (Osaka University)
Summary With an intention to develop a radical initiator which can be used under environmentally benign conditions, we studied a number of azo bis compounds and found that V-70L is an efficient radical initiator at lower temperature. We also found that a novel amphoteric azo bis compound(VA-057)could be used as a radical initiator for soap-free emulsion polymerization at the wide range of pH without organic solvent and surfactants.
No.11 New Route for Sustainable Biodegradable Polymer Synthesis and Recycling Using an Enzyme
Shuichi Matsumura, Hiroki Ebata, Kimihito Nishikawa,Yasushi Osanai, Kazunobu Toshima (Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University)
Summary The greening of chemistry in the field of polymer science may include the application of biocatalysts and the establishment of a sustainable polymer recycling system. Sustainable chemical recycling of polymeric materials between the polymer and monomer using biocatalysts may become an effective method. In this report, the enzymatic degradation and polymerization using lipase were analyzed with respect to the establishment of a sustainable chemical recycling system for poly(trimethylene carbonate) poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).
No.12 Synthesis of Biodegradable Aliphatic Polyesters from Naturally Occurring Hydroxy Acids
Yoshiharu Kimura, Masatoshi Miyamoto, and Ikuo Taniguchi (Kyoto Institute of Technology)
Summary We have succeeded in obtaining a high polymer of PLLA whose molecular weight exceeds 600,000 Da by conducting melt/solid polycondensation of L-lactic acid. We have also developed various PLLA-based copolymers in order to improve the mechanical properties and hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of PLLA.
No.13 Chemical Modification of Unutilized Biomass Chitin by Polymerization of Bio-based Molecules
Keigo Aoi1, Rikiya Nakamura1 (Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University),
Masahiko Okada2 (Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University)
Summary Chemical modification of chitin is an essential subject to utilize huge biomass resources and to develop biorelated functional materials having specific properties such as bioactivity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. A chitin/polysarcosine graft copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of sarcosine N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) with water-soluble chitin as a macromolecular initiator in dimethyl sulfoxide at 27Centigrade. The degrees of polymerization of the side chain increased with an increase of feed molar ratios of the NCA monomer to the glucosamine unit..
No.14 Development of Research System for Biodegradable Polyesters
Tadahisa Iwata and Yoshiharu Doi (Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN Institute)
Summary The research on biodegradable plastics and polymers has been carried out worldwide with the aim of achieving harmony between human activities and natural environments. In our laboratory, we aim to establish the research system of biodegradable polyesters, based on the fundamental techniques of biosynthesis, genetic engineering, efficient production, structure analysis, material design and ecorecycling.
No.15 Cocrystallization and Phase Segregation in Blends of Bacterially Synthesized Copolyesters
Naoko Yoshie and Yoshio Inoue (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Summary Bacterially synthesized copolyesters are known to have bimodal and/or broad chemical composition distribution(CCD). In order to know the effect of CCD on various properties, we have analyzed the phase structure of the blends of bacterial copoyesters, poly(3-hydroxybutylate)(PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutylate-co- 3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB-co-HV)).
No.16 GreenPla : Biodegradable Plastics as Bio-Recycle Materials
Biodegradable Plastics Society :
Summary Reflecting that the biodegradable plastics(BPs) are one of the materials available for the design for the green and sustainable environment, the BPs are called as "GreenPla" in Japan. Although the past market for the GreenPla was not so large, now it begins to grow, particularly since 1998 [:60 tones for 1992, 1,600 or 2,000 tones for 1998, 2,500 or 3,000 tones for 1999]. Here, concept of the GreenPla based on the GSC is briefly reviewed.
No.17 Chemical Recycling of Aliphatic Polyesters:Depolymerization Kinetics of Poly(p-dioxanone)
Haruo Nishida (Molecular Engineering Institute, Kinki University)
Summary To evaluate the feasibility of poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO) as a feed stock recycling material, the pyrolysis kinetics of PPDO were investigated. The pyrolysis of PPDO exclusively resulted in the distillation of 1,4-dioxan-2-one (PDO). From thermogravimetric measurements conducted at different heating rates, the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis: activation energy, Ea; order of reaction, n; and pre-exponential factor, A, were estimated. The estimates show that the decomposition of PPDO proceeds by unzipping depolymerization as main reaction.
No.18 Synthesis and Properties of Aliphatic Polyesters@Using Synthesis Gas
Takashi Masuda (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research)
Summary Aliphatic polyesters, which can be decomposed by microorganism, have been attracting much attention as new materials "biodegradable polymers". We describe results of carbon monoxide-aided synthesis of dimethyl succinate and its application to biodegradable polymers. Polybutylene succinate(PBS) having molecular weight(Mw) of 200,000 or higher were successfully prepared.
No.19 Recycle actions of the PVC industry
(Vinyl Environmental Council.)
Summary The main objective of the activities conducted by the Vinyl Environmental Council (abbreviated VEC) comprised of PVC and VCM manufacturers and Japan PVC Environmental Affairs Council (abbreviated JPEC) comprised of PVC manufacturing industries is "the distribution of knowledge for the correct understanding of PVC, and recycling of PVC".
As for the situation regarding the recycling of plastics waste in 1998, the total amount of the plastics waste in Japan was approximately 9.80 million t, out of which 1.22 million t (12%) was material recycled (reprocessing and reusing of finished products), according to the Plastic Waste Management Institute
PVC waste amounted to 1.28 million t, out of which a little over 0.24 million t (19%) was material recycled. Recycling PVC allows other refuse or resins to be present in the mixture to a certain extent. Also, it can be said that PVC can be easily recycled judging from their numerous applications, rigid and flexible.
No.20 Multi-year Usable Polyolefin Film for Greenhouse
Mitsuko Nakanishi (Sumika Plastech Co.,Ltd)
Summary Agriculture in Japan encounters many challenges to be overcome, e. g., an increase in import of the agricultural products, the aging of farmers and less successors. Thus, it is required to develop new horticultural systems to lead to higher productivity and profitability. KLINTATE and KLINALPHA have been developed as covering film for greenhouse. These are made of polyolefins, having several advantages ; strong against wind, dustproof, lightweight and easy thermal recycling. Especially KLINALPH with long waterdropping performance and long weather resistance is a multi-year usable film which contributes to the reduction of wastes.
No.21 Green Chemistry in Carbohydrate Transformation Reactions: Environmentally Benign Chemical Glycosidations Using a Heterogeneous Catalyst
Kazunobu Toshima,* Hideyuki Nagai, Naoki Miyamoto, Yasunobu Ushiki, Ken-ichi Kasumi and Shuichi Matsumura (Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University)
Summary Carbohydrates are naturally abundant and recyclable feedstocks. One of the most important transformation reactions of carbohydrates is a chemical glycosidation which is very useful to synthesize both natural and unnatural glycosides. Therefore, the greening of chemistry in the field of carbohydrate chemistry may include the use of heterogeneous and reusable solid catalyst in a chemical glycosidation. In this report, several novel and effective O- and C-glycosidation methods using environmentally benign solid acids such as montmorillonite K-10, sulfated zirconia, Nafion-H and heteropoly acid as the activator will be described.
No.22 Development of Ultrasonic Reactor for Treatment ofWastewater Including Refractory Material
Keiji Yasuda, Masayoshi Oga, Lei Rong, Yoshiyuki Bando and Masaaki Nakamura (Nagoya Univ., Chem. Eng.)
Summary The refractory materials such as chlorobenzene are decomposed by ultrasonic irradiation. For the treatment of wastewater including refractory material, an airlift ultrasonic reactor is proposed. The reactor is a bubble column with draft tube and with ultrasonic oscillator attached at the bottom. The gas velocity is changed and the apparent reaction rate constant of porphyrin is measured. As the gas velocity becomes higher, the liquid and gas flows are enhanced and the apparent reaction rate constant becomes higher.
No.23 Environment-Protection Technologies Using Supercritical Water
- From decomposition of toxic compounds to recycling of waste plastics -
Takeshi Sako (Shizuoka Univ.), Tsutomu Sugeta, Izumi Okajima (NIMC)
Summary Supercritical fluids receive much attention as advanced solvents for the decomposition of toxic substances and the recycling of waste plastics. In this symposium, we show several promising applications to the destruction of chlorinated organics such as dioxins and PCBs and the chemical recycling of refractory plastics such as thermosetting resins.
No.24 Dual Contributions to Solving Environmental and Energy Problems:Chemical-Looping Combustion Power Generation Plant
Masaru Ishida, Masashi Yamamoto, Takehiro Ohba, and Yasuhiro Shidahara (Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Summary Greenhouse gas abatement is an extremely crucial but complicated and difficult problem. To make a breakthrough in this field, it is important to develop a new technology for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty. We have proposed a novel gas turbine power plant. This system requires no additional energy consumption for CO2 separation, and further no investment cost for NOx removal equipment. Also the operating cost is reduced. Therefore, this plant can make the dual contributions to efficient use of energy resources and mitigation of greenhouse gas.
No.25 Chemicals Life System Producing "Anshin"
Masaaki Suzuki, Hitoshi Kosuge, Shiro Yoshikawa and Kohei Ogawa (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Summary The society of chemical engineering Japan organizes the research project entitled " Chemicals Life System Producing Anshin. The "Anshin" in Japanese has the broad meaning which includes "assurance of peaceful mind", " quality assurance" and so on. In this project we discuss how to give the "Anshin" to people in the society where many kind of chemicals are used. For this purpose we suppose that we should take social and cultural studies into account adding to the technological studies.
No.26 Enhancement of Biodesulfurization by Using a Recombinant Bacterium
Nobuhiko Nomura, Masaki Takada, Jie Lu, Toshiaki Nakajima-Kambe, and Tadaatsu Nakahara (Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba)
Summary Micobacterium sp. G3 can desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4, 6-dialkylDBT. But, sulfate ion repressed the expression of the coding genes (dsz) of the DBT desulfurizing enzymes. The dsz biodesulfurization cluster from Strain G3 has been engineered under the control of heterologous broad-host-range regulatory signals (heat shock promoter) to alleviate the mechanism of sulfur repression. The recombinant strain G3 was able to desulfurize dibenzothiophene more efficiently than the native host.
No.27 New Solar Cell Using Oxide Semiconductor Sensitized by Organic Dyes
Kazuhiro SAYAMA, Koujiro HARA, Hironori ARAKAWA (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research)
Summary Photoelecrochemical properties of the solar cell using porous oxide semiconductors sensitized by methine organic dyes were investigated. The merocyanine dye with long alkyl chain showed a good performance on the porous TiO2 electrode, and the solar energy to electric powder efficiency was 4.2%. We checked the long time stability of the solar cell under a simulated solar light with UV-cutoff filter, and it was found that the cell was very stable for more than 800 h.
No.28 Catalytic Cracking of Naphtha to Light Olefins
F.Mizukami, Y.Yoshimura, K.Murata, T.Hayakawa, K.Suzuki, N.Kijima (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research),
K.Matano, T.Konishi, T.Oikawa, M.Saito, T.Shiojima (Japan Chemical Industry Association)
Summary A new catalytic process that produces light olefins from naphtha has been developed against the conventional steam cracker. In laboratory-scale tests, a new zeolite-based catalyst gave an ethylene-plus-propylene yield of about 60 % at the reaction temperature of 650 , i.e. about 10 % higher yield than that of conventional process operated at about 820 . A feasibility study for a 3,000 t/d plant indicates about 20 % saving of the energy use in the new catalytic process.
No.29 Micropowder Formation by Polymerization in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Katsuto Otake, Katsunobu Mizuguchi, Chihiro Imase
Summary Micropowder formation by polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide with and without surfactants was examined. As surfactants, polymeric surfactants poly(heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) and poly(heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) were synthesized also by polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide. They were used for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate, styrene, and other (meth)acrylate homopolymers and their copolymers. Spherical micropowder was successfully obtained though, ability of both surfactants to stabilize the polymeric particles was not sufficient especially for polymers which have low grass transition temperature. The existence of excess amount of fluorine on the particle surface was confirmed by an ESCA analysis.
Without surfactants, micropowder of copolymers of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid and other monomers were obtained by polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide. Addition of acid monomers successfully prevented solidification of copolymers, and made fine powders. The DSC chart of acrylic acid/methyl methacrylate copolymer showed only one peak, which suggests the molecular order mixing of both monomers. Because of the ESCA analysis of powders that showed existence of excess carbonyl oxygen atoms on the particle surface, it could be said that the added acid monomers worked as surfactant during the polymerization.
No.30 Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Aromatic Polycarbonates
Jun-ichi Sugiyama1, Meenakshi Goyal2, Ritsuko Nagahata1, Hirotoshi Ishii2, Michihiko Asai1, Mitsuru Ueda1,3, and Kazuhiko Takeuchi*1 (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research1, Japan Chemical Innovation Institute2, Tokyo Institute of Technology3)
Summary Aromatic polycarbonate synthesis by direct reaction of bisphenol A with CO was investigated to develop a new synthesis process alternative to the present phosgene based system. By use of Pd hybrid catalyst, a polymer of weight average molecular weight (Mw) 5,000 was obtained in 90% yield under optimum reaction conditions. Molecular weight of the polymer could be easily increased to substantially high levels (Mw~50,000) by second step of oxidative carbonylation or thermal ester exchange with diphenyl carbonate.
No.31 Entrainer/Solvent-free Separation of Azeotropes by using Heat Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC)
Masaru Nakaiwa, Huang Kejin, Kiyoshi Naito, Akira Endo, Takaji Akiya, Takashi Nakane (Dept. of Chemical Systems, National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research)
Colin Pritchard (Centre for the Study of Environmental Change and Sustainability ,Univ. of Edinburgh)
Summary Azeotropes can be separated in general beyond the azeotropic composition by use of two-columns distillation system with an appropriate entrainer/solvent. A new approach for separation of azeotropes has been studied by using the heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC). It has possibility to separate azeotropes with both saving energy and no entrainer/solvent.
No.32 Chemical Recycling Process for TDI Residue using Supercritical Water
Katsuhisa Kodama (Takeda Chemical Industries,LTD.)
Summary The hydrolysis process with super- or sub-critical water was applied to Tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) distillation residue. TDI residue results from the purification of crude TDI by the phosgenation of Tolylenediamine (TDA). By the process with super- or sub-critical water, TDA can be obtained from TDI residue comprising of TDI oligomers. A plant for the commercial use of the chemical recycling process for TDI residue using supercritical water was constructed at the end of 1997, and is now in effective operation as an environmental-friendly plant.
No.33 Green Chemistry Initiatives at Los Alamos National Laboratory
Dr. Dennis L. Hjeresen Acting Director (Green Chemistry Institute
Senior Program Manager Environmental Management Programs
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545
Phone (505) 665-7251/5-8118 FAX e-mail:
Summary Los Alamos National Laboratory is working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy to promote fundamental breakthroughs in chemistry that accomplish pollution prevention and energy conservation through source reduction and are useful to industry. Green Chemistry is defined as the use of chemical principles and methodologies for source reduction. The Los Alamos Green Chemistry Program encompasses all aspects and types of chemical processes---including synthesis, catalysis, analysis, monitoring, separations, and reaction conditions---that reduce impacts on human health, energy consumption, and the environment relative to the current state of the art.
No.34 Membrane Technologies and sustainable developments
XU Tongwen (Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China)
Tel: +86-551-360-1587; Email:
Summary The developments of industries have promoted the living improvements of the world people. However, these developments have at the same time given rise to environmental problems and make the people in the world experiencing serious pollution and thus threaten their health and safety.
No.35 Green Chemistry Research in the UK
Mike Lancaster (Royal Society of Chemistry Green Chemistry
Summary The last 10 years has seen a huge increase in the amount of research on green and sustainable chemistry being carried out in the UK. The start of this ongoing process was an initiative by the Government funded Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council which introduced a 5 year Clean Technology initiative. This programme funded academic research into areas such as catalysis, supercritical fluids, ionic liquids, process intensification and life cycle assessment, all of which can make an important contribution to developing more sustainable products and processes.